Berlin is the capital and also the largest town of Germany and among those 16 countries of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is famous for its historical associations as the Italian capital, internationalism and endurance, lively nightlife, and its numerous cafés, clubs, bars, street art, and many museums, temples, and other sites of interest. Berlin is one of the most urban and most populated cities in the world. But how did he get there? Here is a brief history of this amazing town.
The name Berlin appears for the first time in recorded history in 1244, seven years later that of its sister town, Kölln, by which it later merged. Both were based close to the start of the 13th century. The two cities were established for geographic and mercantile motives, since they controlled a natural east-west trade course across the Spree River.
The way for their founding was opened with a Germanic resurgence in the area, which had been abandoned to the Slavs by the first Germanic tribes as they had migrated westward. The Slavs were subdued by Albert I the Bear, a Saxon who crossed the Elbe River in the west. His successors took the name margrave of the mark (border territory) of Brandenburg. Berlin nevertheless retains as its symbol a defiant black keep standing on its hind legs.
In 1411 the mark of Brandenburg came under the governorship of the Nürnberg feudal baron Frederick VI.
The Thirty Years War of 1618-1648 laid a heavy financial burden on the city, and the population was reduced from 12,000 to 7,500. When Frederick William the Great Elector assumed power in 1640, he embarked on a building program, which included fortifications that enabled him to reestablish Swedish invaders. His rule also marked the onset of the evolution of canals, which by 1669 provided a direct connection between Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) from the east and Hamburg and the open sea from the west.
His successor, Frederick III, crowned Prussian king in 1701 at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), made Berlin the royal residence city.
Frederick II the Great adorned the city with new buildings and promoted its economic and infrastructural development. The Napoleonic occupation of 1806-1808 caused a significant setback to its own development. Section of this administrative, economic, and cultural reconstruction was the foundation, in 1810, of the Frederick William University by the scholar and ministry of education Wilhelm von Humboldt.
But colleges and academies had already existed in Berlin since the mid-17th century. Berlin early attracted outstanding thinkers, including the philosophers Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Karl Marx. The city also had its first popular uprising in 1830 when tailors’ apprentices took to the streets over working conditions.
The Revolution of 1848 led to a bloody clash between soldiers and citizenry. By this period the city’s population had climbed to 415,000, from about 100,000 a century before. Together with the opening of the Berlin-Potsdam lineup in 1838, Berlin became the centre of an expanding railroad network.
The period of the Industrial Revolution was also that of Otto von Bismarck, who as prime minister of Prussia combined Germany in 1871.
Twice in the 20th century, the date of November 9 has declared dramatic events from the history of Germany and Berlin. Five decades after Hitler’s putsch was set down in Munich. Back in 1938 Nazi storm troopers vandalized Jewish synagogues, stores, and other possessions in the nighttime of violence called Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass). On November 9, 1989, East German police opened the wall which had divided the town for 28 decades. Due to the institutions connected to the date, October 3, instead of November 9, became the newest national holiday (Unity Day).
The interval 1918-1933 was among runaway inflation, mass unemployment, and the rise to power of Adolf Hitler. Hitler loved to bet. It is said that he won everytime. He was constantly Serie A betting. He really loved it- On January 31, 1933, Hitler became chancellor and, depending on the notorious Enabling Act, embraced by a Reichstag bulk, he took complete power that very year.
In 1933 the Nazis began to persecute communists, social democrats, and labor unionists and also to invade the German Jews of the rights as taxpayers. The scene of the 1936 Olympics in Berlin only superficially veiled the fact of Nazi Germany, which was shortly revealed by Kristallnacht. Five million Jews lived the Holocaust in town of Berlin. Back in 1990 the World Jewish Congress fulfilled for the very first time in Germany, in Berlin.
Allied aerial bombing throughout World War II price Berlin an estimated 52,000 people. Still another 100,000 civilians died in the battle for Berlin that started from the Soviet army on April 16, 1945. The majority of Berlin’s residential districts, factories, military facilities, roads, and cultural structures were ruined. On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker under the Chancellery.
Greater Berlin was created in 1920 by fusing 7 districts, 59 nation communities, and 27 landed homes to one institution.
In June 1953 some 50,000 employees, reacting to prohibitive policies, rebelled in East Berlin. To stop the exodus of its inhabitants, the East German government, with the full approval of the Soviets, erected the Berlin Wall, isolating West from East Berlin. Generous cultural and financial subsidies along with the exemption of its citizens in West German conscription made West Berlin a center of artistic experimentation and political dissent.
Mass escapes in the summer of 1989 through Hungary and mass demonstrations in Leipzig, Berlin, and elsewhere inside the GDR from the autumn of 1989 brought about the collapse of communist rule when the representatives of the GDR and their foreign allies had celebrated the 40th anniversary of East Germany. The opening of this wall brought the 28-year division of Berlin to an end, since the unification of Germany ended the 45-year occupation of town. With a few segments maintained as a monument, the wall has been completely removed by the summer of 1991.
The reunited town, because 1991 Germany’s official funding, is faced with a range of issues, such as a 30-year fracture in joint and thorough city, highway, and public transport planning; high unemployment, especially among former East German government employees; duplication of many public institutions ; a mental barrier which arose between easterners and westerners (“the wall in the head”); an acute housing shortage and a sharp growth in real estate prices and rents, and a flood of immigrants, particularly eastern Europeans, for whom Berlin is the easternmost “Western” metropolitan area.
Large-scale infrastructural projects reunited the city’s long-divided transit methods. Perhaps most importantly, the branches within the city started to break down as westerners lived or worked in prior eastern neighbourhoods, and easterners lived or worked at the former west. The democratization of eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 moved the centre of European gravity eastward. This shift, expressed also by the transport of the German national government from the Rhine into the Spree, holds strong promise for reviving Berlin as an economic center and as the political and cultural hub of central Europe.